Month: October 2019

Kings, Kids, and Death…Basic Summary of Puram Poetry

Puram is one of two genres of Classical Tamil Poetry. Puram poems reflect the Tamil community’s culture and traditions. The Puram poetics are not nearly as demanding as their counterparts, Akam poets, because the themes presented in Puram poetry is foregrounded in the objective. Puram poetry also differs from Akam poetry in that it is more specific, public, the authors are encouraged to take on voices other than their own. The publicity of the Puram poems offers a wider range of social topics and are articulated in a wider range of voices. The concept of lifestyle of human beings falls in two categories: personal and public. Puram poetry is public, while its counter, Akam, is personal.  Though the two great ancient Indian literary traditions differ vastly in almost all aspects, there seems to be a unity in terms of a tendency to write according to schemes that can be classified.

All of Tamil poetry had been divided into Akam or Puram. Akam dealt with the inner world, love poems, written in highly structured forms. Puram poems are usually set in cities and towns; they are about real people and real places, public issues and places, and common problems and tragedies. The theme in Puram poems are on the outer world, and dealt with public life, war, death, and the glory of kings. They provide graphic details of the society and the life of the kings, merchants and common people in a cosmopolitan, trade-oriented, and religiously tolerant society. These poems laid the foundation for Tamil poetry, a tradition so strong that it was only from the nineteenth century onward that poets began to struggle to break, as the translators say, “free [from] traditional and prescribed forms of prosody… speak with new voices and address a wide audience in the modern political and social world.” Puram leads to consideration as a historical record by Tamil literary scholars as it has details such as names of the kings, poets, and places. The Puram concept speaks on excellency of lifestyle of different people. As the kings are famous, their life-styles of war and gifts are spoken in plenty.

Image result for tamil king lifestyle

Tolkappiyam, the earliest work of Tamil grammar and literature available in Tamil, divides each genre into seven strands comparing and connecting the one in personal with the other in public life of style. Another work that belongs to a period of a thousand years later, Purapporul Venpamalai, divides the puram concept into twelve, without concerning the other part life-style. Puram leads to consideration as a historical record by Tamil literary scholars as it has details such as names of kings, poets, and places.

In the Sangam literature, the Tamil language reached a level of maturity and began to serve as a powerful and elegant medium of literary expression. It had already developed an elaborate code of conventions governing the portrayal of social life in literature. This must clearly have been the result of evolution and development spread over some generations.The language of this early poetry is formalized and standardized. The poets were true to nature and their poems abounded in descriptions of nature perceived with a keen eye. They speak volumes about the powers of observation and attention to details of the poets of this age.

An example of Puram poetry is “The Exterior Landscape,” also known as “This World Lives Because.” In the poem, the idea of not having anger and not striving for selfishness makes the world exist. Honorable men and women symbolize all that is good in the world. The poem states that if everyone was selfless and did for others, the world would become a Utopian kind of world.

Another example of Puram poetry is “Children.” In the poem, the author state that though child are messy and annoying, they are the most precious gift. The poem goes on to list all of the irritable things that children do, but then states that without them, a man’s life has no meaning. “If he does not have children…and overcome reason with love, all his days have come to nothing” (Norton 983).

Image result for having kids meme

In the poem, “A Mother’s List of Duties,” the author, Ponmutyar, writes about a mother’s duties, stating that it is a mother’s duty to bring up a son who is as noble as his father, and to show his way with the spears for the kings. In the poem, it seems that it is a mother’s job to bring up a man who will fight battles and butcher animals and come out alive.


Puchner, Martin, et al. The Norton Anthology of World Literature. 970-972, 982-983. 4th ed., B, W.W. Norton & Company, 2018.



Rumi: Wonder Like Worship

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Jalal Al-Din Muhammad Rumi was an Islamic scholar, poet, faqih (an Islamic jurist), and theologian. He was born in eastern Persia in Balkh but spent most of his life in Konya, which is modern day Turkey. Rumi’s most notable work is the Masnavi, a collection of six books containing rhymed couplets.

My favorite couplet is untitled in the Masnavi and is usually referred to by its first line “Come, come whoever you are.”

Come, come, whoever you are.
Wonderer, worshipper, lover of leaving.
It doesn’t matter.
Ours is not a caravan of despair.
Come, even if you have broken your vow
a thousand times
Come, yet again, come, come.

This couplet is about meeting people where they are. The Islamic world has a history of sociocultural acceptance and that is reflected in this couplet. The choice of the word caravan in the fourth line implies travel and creates an invitation to go on this journey of acceptance.

In the second line, the alliteration of lover and leaving rolls off the tongue not as a sorrowful plea but as knowledge that this person, this lover of leaving has come and gone before and will return. The assonance of the “uh” O sound help each line echo back to the other. The opening “come, come” feels like a grand sweeping gesture. As if speaking to a crowd with open arms “come one, come all”. However, the last “come, come” is a whisper to a returning acquaintance or friend beckoning them into the sitting room for coffee for the thousandth time.

The second couplet I’d like to talk about is titled “Like blood beneath my skin”.

Like blood beneath my skin, within my veins, love came;

Now emptied of myself my friend fills all my frame;

My friend fills out my limbs, my life-he’s all I am

And all that still remains of me in me’s my name.

Each line in this piece, with the exception of the third, is a perfect end rhyme. A perfect rhyme is when two rhyme sounds are exact. In this case, the “a” sound in came, frame and name. End rhyme is exactly what it sounds like, a rhyme at the end of the line. “Am” at the end of the third line is a sight or eye rhyme. These are words that look like they might rhyme but don’t exactly rhyme when said aloud.   

The sight rhyme punctuates the phrase “I am” at the end of the third line. Which creates a small point of dissent in the piece saying “in the face of being so full of love all that’s left of me is my name, I still exist, I still am”. 

I enjoy “Like blood beneath my skin” because it tells of selfless devotion and surrender to something bigger than ourselves, be it love or God or the world and people around us.

Rumi’s poetry sings with spirituality like a hymn. His work encapsulates the warmth human spirituality possesses in and out of organised religion. Love, in all forms, is something holy in Rumi’s work.

If you’re interested in listening to some of Rumi’s work in Farsi, the Persian language, here is a link to a performance of his work sung and accompanied by music:

Works Cited

Puchner, Martin, general editor. Norton Anthology of World Literature Volume B. W.W Norton & Company, 2018. 

Rumi, Jalal Al-Din Muhammad. Masnavi Book I. Translated by Idries Shah and E.H Whinfield, Ishk Book Service, 1994.


The Role of The Trickster Woman in “The Scholar’s Guide”

The role of women in literature during the Middle Ages has a wide variety of the types of characters they were limited too; such as, the unfaithful young wife, the old, wise widow, and the trickster. In Petrus Alfonsi’s work in “The Scholar’s Guide”  it shows a perfect example of how trickster women characters were written in the 11th century literature. One such example can be taken from the parable “The Parable of The Weeping Bitch”, where an old woman is portrayed as a trickster. Alfonsi is using this to portray the sense that even though certain instances can appear one way, they are really another, and if one is not careful they can be deceived just like the characters in this parable were.   

In order to understand the context of “The Scholar’s Guide” it is important to learn about the author Petrus Alfonsi, who converted from Judaism to Christianity in June of 1106 C.E. Most of his works were written as parables and easy to understand for any reader, this made them readily available for anyone that wanted to learn more about the values and behaviour of a good Christian. One of his popular works is “The Scholar’s Guide” and inside of this text is a framed narrative of a teacher telling parables orally to his pupil. At the end of each parable the student asks to learn more about the philosophies and cultural understandings of the world around him, and in turn the teacher responses with either a moral to the parable just told or a transition to the next parable to come. In the context of tricks played by women in these parables, the one that is told advises the young pupil to learn about the knowledge of tricks that can happen, “Therefore I beg you not to stop the story-telling already begun but, on the contrary, to reveal women’s tricks in detail (292).” But the pupil takes it as the tricks that women play, and insists on knowing more. The following  parable that the teacher tells to the pupil is “The Parable of the Weeping Bitch” and while the context of the parable may have been seen as a framed story uncovering the tricks that women play, it is instead indicating a different kind of moral altogether. 

In the parable of the “Weeping Bitch”, there is a young woman who is chaste and her husband just left so that he may pray in the holy places, he trusts that his younger wife will do the right thing and stay faithful. In the parable it states that, “He did not want to leave any other guardian for his wife but herself, trusting in her chaste habits and the honor of her uprightness (292).” But there was a younger man who fell in love with the chaste women, and became sick because he could not be with her. An old woman, who was dressed as a nun, saw the man and offered to help him “find a remedy”. The man quickly agrees and the old woman comes up with a plan of how to deceive the chaste woman, and goes to her dog and starves him of any food for two days. Then she feeds him mustard which causes the dogs eyes to water him and to whimper because of the spice in the mustard. She then goes to the chaste woman’s house, bringing the dog along, and explains why the dog is crying so much. She says to the chaste women, “This little dog which you see was my daughter, who was very chaste and modest and was loved by a young man; but she was so chaste that she spurned him and rejected his love (292).” After she had convinced the chaste women that this story was true, the young woman immediately saw the correlation in her own life and was fearful that she might be turned into a dog. In desperation she asks what she can do so that such a thing would not happen to her. The old woman says to her, “Dear friend, I advise you to have pity on him as quickly as possible and do what he asks, so that you may not be turned into a dog just as my daughter was (292).” Thus, the young women goes to man to do as he pleases that way she is not turned into a dog, and then old women holds true to her promise of finding a remedy for the man to be healed from his sickness. 

 The main focus of this parable is the old woman, and it is first mentioned of the old woman that she is wearing the habit of a nun, which is the most recognizable part of clothing that nuns wear, “He met an old woman wearing the habit of a nun (293).” and then she persuades him into telling her what is wrong, even though at first he did not want to. This could be considered one of the first tricks that old woman performs in the parable, even though she is dressed in clothes that would indicate religion and of being close to God; she fails to follow through on such traits that would be associated with religion. Perhaps this is one of the reasons that at first the man is not as quick to share what is on his mind, since it requires him stating that which would not be considered pure for a Christian to state to one in some authority of the church. Thus, the first trick or deceptiveness of the old woman, is in the identity of who she is, since the actions that she takes in the next part of the parable do not line up with that of which she was portraying herself. 

She gets the man to tell her what is wrong and declares that she will “find a remedy”, and once she gets to the chaste woman’s house then starts her second act of trickery in the parable. She acts out against the values of what she is being portrayed as, she first lies to the chaste woman and stating that her very own daughter (which is also an indication that she is not what she seems; since, nun’s take a vow of celibacy) was actually punished and turned into a whining bitch for being too chaste. She even says to the chaste woman, “And was loved by a young man; but was so chaste (293).” Indicating to the chaste woman, that her own daughters downfall, which was a quality in which any wife should uphold in religion or the Christian church, caused her to be punished for being “too chaste”. The old woman than convineces the chaste woman that in order to not be punished like her daughter, that she must go to the younger man who claims to love her, who is not her husband, and do what he asks. The old woman completes her deeds of trickery and uses sly and deceitfulness to trick people into going against that which is a valuable trait in Christianty. This in turn, completes the tricks that the old woman plays on the chaste woman. Petrus Alfonsi also includes dialogue between the teacher and his pupil, stating that black magic could have been involved. At first glance of this text it could be decided that Alfonsi is indicating that all women are subject to be deceptive no matter once, since after the parable the pupil is intent on declaring that he wants to learn more about the tricks that women play. But, when one reads closer and analyzes the text, it could be made clear that Alfonsi is trying to show the reader, and the pupil in the frame narrative, that the moral is not everything can be taken from “face value”, but to instead judge people on their actions rather than their title or the job that they posses. 

Alfonsi made his parable “The Weeping Bitch” difficult to put into context of what he was trying to say morally. Instead of assuming that the main focus is all women are tricksters, it is important to look beyond the face value of the text and realize that Alfonis was suggesting that people can only be judged by their actions. And, if we were quick to assume that all women were tricksters then we fell into the very trap that Alfonsi was writing against: To judge someone based on their actions rather than how they appear.   

Works Cited: Pucher, Martin, et al. The Norton Anthology of World Literature: New York, 3rd edition, Vol B. 2012.      

The Mythos of the Origins of the Beloved One Thousand and One Nights

Welcome! Please, take a seat as I take you on a journey through the sands of time. The One Thousand and One Nights is a collection of stories known around the world. In America, what is most known about it are two stories: Aladdin and Sinbad.

Surprisingly, these are two add-ons that may or may not have been originally part of the collection of tales. So I know what you may be wondering, if they weren’t part of the One Thousand and One Nights than what were? The collection follows one main story. The story of a cruel king and a young woman named Shahrazad. King Shahrayar, who was cheated on by his first wife, was taking a new bride everyday only to kill her the next day. Shahrazad, daughter of the royal vizier, volunteers (in the Arabic version) to be the king’s next bride. She planned to stop the king and save the women of the kingdom by telling the king a story every night that ended on a cliff hanger, promising to continue the next night. This goes on for one thousand and one nights before the king sets her free (in the Arabic version). The stories she tells have other stories embedded within them, many of which teach mercy and the consequences of cruelty like the Fisherman and the Genie. The Fisherman and the Genie is a story about a fisherman, who was down on his luck, that comes across as bottle containing a powerful genie. Once released, the genie tells the fisherman that he will kill him and he got to choose how. The fisherman tricks him back into the bottle then tells him a story about mercy. The genie tricks the fisherman into letting him out but instead of harming him the genie gives him magic fish so that the fisherman would live comfortably. The genie does this because he learned from the story that the fisherman told. Meta, right? Others tales with the collection are purely for raunchy entertainment like The Woman with Two Coyntes. So, if that’s the main story then how do we have Aladdin, you ask?

Don’t let the title “Arabian Nights” fool you.

These tales come from many parts of the world like Asia, Africa, and what was known as the Persian Empire. The tales found from the original manuscript summed to about two hundred and eighty stories which prompted others to add on, passing it around like year book hoping it to reach one thousand and one. The act of adding more stories only magnifies the concept of Shahrazad’s plan, changing someone’s life through continual story telling. It also enhances the mysticism of the tales because no one knows exactly where the story first began. Was it in the Persian Empire or was it India? Who can say? Since no one knows for sure is it even appropriate to refer to it as the Arabian Nights anymore? Personally, I don’t think so because it is understating the worldliness that is the One Thousand and One Nights. The mystery only intensifies the allure of this enticing collection.

Why is this collection so beloved that it has circulated since 879 CE? I think it’s because it has something for everyone. It’s the whole package with its drama, comedy, setting, and tone. It’s an old text but it’s still accessible today like an old pair of fuzzy socks on a cold day or an umbrella, no matter who you are or where, if it’s raining it’s got you covered.


The story is based in fantasy so it doesn’t feel out of place for someone in any time period. And it was something that was shared orally. You can almost image someone travelling, passing the time by telling the various stories within the One Thousand and One Nights, and because there are so many you never run out or get bored.

Even now we are still being influenced and inspired by these stories. There are copious cartoons, novels, graphic novels, and movies that reference or expand upon the One Thousand and One Nights in some way trying to make the old into new. While the origins of these stories may be lost to time, the tales remain ever timeless.



Image sources in chronological order

Gify. Aladdin. Disney. Accessed October 2nd 2019.

TMZ. “Sinbad”. TMZ Exclusive. Accessed October 2nd 2019.

Portsmouthnh. Arabian Nights. Accessed October 2nd 2019.

Pinterest. “Autumn”. Accessed October 2nd 2019.